The very first color film
Many people think of Wizard of Oz as being the first color film in cinema history. While this is not technically true, we will dive into why that is a common misconception in just a bit.
But first let’s dive into the history of color in cinema to find the answer to the question, “What was the first color movie?”
What was the first color movie?
The first commercially produced film in natural color was A Visit to the Seaside (1908). The eight-minute British short film used the Kinemacolor process to capture a series of shots of the Brighton Southern England seafront. The first feature length, non-documentary film was The World, the Flesh and the Devil produced in 1914. The feature length drama film is now considered a lost film, but was the first feature length film to use the Kinemacolor process.
The early days of color in film
Before the Kinemacolor process was used in film, filmmakers used more laborious and expensive methods to introduce color in cinema. Color films date further back than people think. Tinting was used in the early days of motion pictures to represent color in film, but portrayed an entirely monochromatic image.
Many early filmakers and innovators employed the use of stenciling, or hand coloring film images. The movie Trip to the Moon (1902) required an entire assembly line of workers to color every frame. Just take a look at the footage of the film and you can see how laborious this task was.
For a film to have this kind of color in the early twentieth century is impressive, but it is hard to see how these color processes evolved into the coloring and color theory that we see today. How did these vintage coloring techniques evolve into what we see on the big screen today? Kinemacolor opened the doors to color technology in cinema.
The first known film to successfully use the Kinemacolor process was A Trip to the Moon (1902). The Kinemacolor process was revolutionary. It utilized red and green filters on alternating frames to simulate the colors of the film.
While the Kinemacolor process undoubtedly opened new doors to color in cinema, it still did not represent the full spectrum of colors on screen. The sole use of red and green filters left some images washed out. The lack of blue left out a range of the color spectrum from images.
How Technicolor changed cinema
In 1914, Technicolor was born and began experimenting with various techniques to produce color movies. They used two projectors to try and create color through a prism. They even tried to imprint color on film stock which proved to be too costly. Unfortunately all of these techniques were too expensive and would require special projection equipment for theaters.
Then, in 1932, Technicolor used dye-transfer methods in a three-color film to create the most vibrant colors cinema has ever seen. Getting to this point, however, was no easy task. Take a look at this video by Vox that analyzes how Technicolor revolutionized cinema through three-color processing.
As mentioned in the video, Technicolor’s revolutionary process was first used in Disney’s short film Flowers and Trees. And although the process was still expensive, the technology was improved upon and was used in some of the most iconic films in cinema such as The Wizard of Oz (1939) and Gone With the Wind (1939).
To read more, click here.