Music is often called the world’s universal language. No matter where somewhere may be from, everyone seems to understand the feelings that music evokes. While we may never know for sure when our ancestors first developed music, we do know that some of the earliest examples of musical instruments appeared over 40,000 years ago. These findings suggest that the early modern humans who first settled in Europe already had musical traditions – it is believed that they created their instruments soon after they settled in Europe. Our ancestors may have developed music about 50,000 years ago, during the “cultural explosion”, the time period when humans began creating art, jewelry, ceremonially burying the dead.

 Tutankhamun’s Trumpets

 Age: about 3,340 years old
 Country of Origin:  Egypt
 Material(s) Used:  One with sterling silver, the other from bronze or copper

Tutankhamun's Trumpets

The pair of trumpets from Pharaoh Tutankhamun’s tomb are believed to be the oldest playable trumpets in the world. These trumpets are the only ones that have survived from ancient Egypt and are over 3,000 years old. They were discovered in 1922 by archaeologist Howard Carter during an excavation of Tutankhamun’s tomb. Both trumpets feature are finely engraved with decorative images of the god Ra-Horakhty, Ptah, and Amun.

In 1939, the trumpets were played before a live audience and the performance was broadcast internationally through BBC radio. Since their discovery, there have been claims that the trumpets have the power to summon war. People have connected the British entering World War II with the trumpets because the war in Europe started five months after the BBC broadcast.

 Jiahu Flutes

 Age: 7,000 – 9,000 years old
 Country of Origin:  Jiahu, Yellow River Valley, China
 Material(s) Used:  Red-Crown Crane wing bones

Jiahu Flutes photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The bone flutes discovered at the Jiahu archaeological site are the oldest known musical instruments from China. Thirty-three flutes in various states were uncovered at the site – about 20 of the flutes are intact and the rest are broken or fragmented. Six of the flutes are complete and are considered to be the oldest playable, multinote musical instruments ever found. The flutes vary in size and have five, six, seven, or eight holes.

Researchers have played the best-preserved flute and have uploaded audio recordings that showcase musical signs that are thousands of years old. Tonal analysis revealed that the seven-holed flute produces notes similar to the familiar Western eight-note scale that begins with “do, re, mi.”

 Lithophones

 Age: between 4,000 and 10,000 years old
 Country of Origin:  Different parts of the world; oldest examples from India and Vietnam
 Material(s) Used:  Resonant rocks

Lithophonesphoto source: Wikipedia

The name “lithophone” is used for any musical instruments made of rocks that produce musical notes when struck. These types of ancient instruments have been uncovered around the world, with some of the oldest known examples coming from Vietnam. The lithophones from Vietnam are called Dan Da and consist of 11 large stone slabs, positioned vertically close to one another. Researchers determined that the stones were chiseled and could produce music by hitting them.

One of the best-known examples of lithophones are the Musical Stones of Skiddaw. Over two centuries, a series of lithophones were built around the town of Keswick in northern England.

 Bullroarer

 Age: about 20,000 years old
 Country of Origin:  Different parts of the world; oldest examples from Ukraine and France
 Material(s) Used:  Thin slat of wood and cord

Bullroarerphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The bullroarer is a ritual musical instrument used by many ancient and current cultures around the world. Historically, it was used for communicating over long distances. The oldest known example of a bullroarer was found in Ukraine, dating back to the Paleolithic period (about 18,000 BCE). In addition to the oldest bullroarer from Ukraine, archaeologists have uncovered ancient bullroarers in other parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian sub-continent, Australia, and the Americas.

Although several cultures have used the bullroarer, Australian Aborigines are best known for using the instrument. Aborigines use the bullroarer in initiation ceremonies, in burials to ward off evil spirits, and against bad omens.

 Isturitz Flutes

 Age: 20,000 – 35,000 years old
 Country of Origin:  Isturitz Cave, France
 Material(s) Used:  Vulture Wing Bones

Isturitz Flutesphoto source: Flutopedia

The flutes found at the Isturitz archaeological site in southwestern France range in age from about 20,000 to 35,000 years old. Fragments from more than 20 separate flutes were uncovered at the site. The flutes were made by various cultures that lived in the area including Aurignacian, Gravettian, and Magdalenian.

While most of the flutes are in pieces, two of the most complete flutes were created by the Gravettian culture and are between 22,000 and 28,000 years old. These flutes are well-crafted and show obvious signs of use, especially around the finger holes. The area around the finger holes look polished, which has been interpreted as wear from playing.

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