Theatre has evolved through many years, twentieth-century theatre depicts a time of extraordinary change in the theatre culture, especially in Europe and North America. There were long-term challenges in theatrical representation, which resulted in advancement of numerous new types of theatre such as Modernism, Expressionism, Impressionism, political theatre and other forms of Experimental theatre. Theatre showed tons of improvement after 19th century. Theatre forms like naturalism and realism which already existed developed continuously. Improvements in areas like Gender theory and postmodern philosophy distinguished and created subjects for the theatre to explore. These performances intended to stand up to the crowd’s perceptions and presumptions to bring up issues about their general public. These difficult and influential plays portrayed a large part of the last twenty years of the twentieth century.
Let’s take a look at the forms of theatre of twentieth century, firstly Modernism, was a dominatingly European movement that developed as a reluctant break from traditional artistic forms. It is both a philosophical development and a workmanship development that emerged from wide changes in western culture during the late nineteenth and mid twentieth century. The form reflected on the emerging urbanization, new innovations and war. In-short the industrial world. Through new forms of art and philosophy. From the start, the modernist theatre was in huge section an endeavour to understand the transformed stage on naturalistic principles as advocated by Émile Zola during the 1880s. The next form of theatre is Realism, which was already established before 20th century. It focuses on representation of the matter in a more truthful manner, without simulation and avoiding unrealistic, colourful and supernatural components. Many artists found a psychological approach for theatre was influenced by the works of Sigmund Freud, Charles Darwin and other psychologists to emphasize the inner elements of the characters in front of the audience. Political form of theatre, that comments on the social and of course, political issues. Global theatre, toward the start of the twentieth century, numerous European crowds were presented to the “intriguing” dramatic universe of Japanese and Chinese performances. This made many western practitioners incorporate these styles in their own theatres: most prominently Bertolt Brecht’s variation of Chinese opera to help his ‘Alienation’ impact. The impact of the non-western theatre on theatre culture in the twentieth century has regularly been urgent to new turns of events. There was a massive amount of development seen in theatre all over the world after the advent of post-colonial theory in the 1960s and 1970s.
Famous works during 20th century are: David Belasco – Madame Butterfly, Frank Wedekind – King Nicolo, John Millington Synge – The Playboy of the Western World, Harley Granville-Barker – The Madras House, Maxwell Anderson and Laurence Stallings – What Price Glory?, John Perry – A Man About the House, Tad Mosel – All the Way Home and much more, the list is so long.
After Independence, theatre spread throughout the country as one of the mediums of entertainment. As a diverse, multi-cultural country, the theatre of India can’t be decreased to a solitary, homogenous pattern. In contemporary India, the major rivalry with its venue is that spoken to by developing media business and the spread of films produced in the Indian entertainment world situated in Mumbai (previously Bombay), known as “Bollywood”. Lack of forms was another major obstacle. Various forms of Indian theatre are: Bhavai most popular form of Gujarat, Jatra of Bengal, theatre form famous in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Malwa area of Madhya Pradesh is Swang. Kathakali is form which includes both dance and drama which origins from Kerala. Lastly, Yakshagana of Karnataka.
Famous playwrights during 20th century in India were: Andha Yug by Dharamvir Bharati, The Tourist Maker, An Experiment with Truth, the Captives by Asif Currimbhoy, Hayavadana by Girish Karnad. These writers and artists gave a new life to the theatre during this period which modified the theatre in a unique way.